Les femmes comme enjeu de contrôle. Islamophobie genrée et nationalisme sexuel en Europe et aux États-Unis
Drawing on the idea that race and gender both partake of the naturalized expression of power relations, this paper shows how, in the present French and European contexts, religion is in turn racialized, as culture was before. Religion provides both a space to represent conflicts between social actors and a framework with which to study women’s control in a still patriarchal society. The racialization of religion, particularly Islam, and the racialization of sexism (including homophobia), associated with people of “Muslim culture”, contribute to the essentialization and the stigmatization of a particular group of people by fostering hostile attitudes towards them. It also conceals gender inequalities and sexism engrained in the structures and values of global society. We discuss both the notions of “Islamophobia” and “gendered Islamophobia” and the racialization processes, within the frame of novel European and American “sexual nationalisms”, which consider homonormativity on par with heteronormativity and Muslim women and men as figures of the absolute Other. Eager to provide a symmetrical and universalist analysis, the paper concludes by putting into perspective antisemitism and Islamophobia within the framework of the contemporary racial imaginary in Europe and the United States.
gender, Islam, sexism, homophobia, intersectionality, antisemitism
Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada (dir.)
Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), revue Religiologiques 39 (automne 2019) «Islamophobie viriliste et radicalisation islamophobe»
Discriminations – marginalisation – segregation
Race – racialization – racism
Cultural Anthropology, Social Anthropology